Mozambique is located in the           eastern part of Southern Africa and compromises a land floor
of 800 000 km2
, with a population of nearly 24 million population (UN, 2013b). The united states of america
received independence from Portuguese colonial rule in 1975, quickly to be followed through a
protracted and unfavorable civil warfare that changed into led to 1992. In 1994 Mozambique had its first
democratic election that led to a political balance and to one of the world’s maximum fast
examples of economic boom, averaging approximately 7.5% yearly (Mulder and Tembe,
2008). Nevertheless it’s far nevertheless one of the international’s poorest international locations with a Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) in keeping with capita of US$536 and a Human Development Index rank of 185 out of 187
countries (UN, 2013b). Mozambique is extraordinarily dependent on overseas useful resource, which presently
encompasses more or less half of the authorities budget (UNDP, 2013).
Mozambique has widespread natural resourses, inclusive of hydro ability, herbal gas reserves and
verified coal reserves (Mulder and Tembe, 2008). Last but no longer least are the usa’s vast
forestry property; forestland accounts for 50% of the united states of america’s total land region (UN, 2013b).
Biofuels are not simplest environmental beneficial, however additionally ‘a pathway out of poverty’ for
growing nations. Biofuels can offer incentives in agricultural and forestry studies and
improvement, and also stimulate linkages to enter and meals markets that currently do not
exist. Like many other countries Mozambique has discovered the benefits of biofuels
(Schut et al., 2010).
Nevertheless, no more than 18% of the families in Mozambique have get entry to to strength,
which leaves most people of the populace, 90%, depending on traditional power assets
such as charcoal and firewood for home use (Mahumane et al., 2012). This has lead to an
growing deforestation charge of 0.53% annually, equating to approximately 200,000 ha/12 months
(FAO, 2010). The increasing use of conventional cooking fuels isn’t always most effective dangerous to
forestation, biodiversity and soils, but also to human health. Gaseous and particulate
emissions reason harmful fitness results for customers of cooking stoves and to local citizens
(Ezzati et al., 2002). Furthermore, the earth’s radiation stability is affected each immediately and
indirectly by using cloud interactions from PM emissions. Combustion of biofuel is a good sized
source of PM, generating about 20% of global emissions of each natural carbon and
elemental carbon (Bond et al., 2004). Nearly 1.6 million untimely deaths and about
three% of the worldwide burden of sickness are because of publicity to indoor air pollutants associated
with household solid fuel (WHO, 2006).
An opportunity to traditional fuels for cooking might be wooden pellets. Wood pellets are a
compressed by-product of the wooded area merchandise industry, commonly being compressed wooden chips
and sawdust. Its characteristics are a uniform size, low moisture content material and high calorific
cost. Mozambique has theoretically huge volumes of residuals and raw fabric that would
be used to produce timber pellets. The united states has over one hundred twenty functional sawmills producing
large volumes of sawdust (Nhancale et al., 2009). The furniture industry is largely adopted
within the u . S . A ., particularly in or in connection to the large cities. By-products from fixtures
enterprise are dried because of the producing process, and therefore they do not require
as tons power consuming drying as sawdust from sawmills. A remarkable palm plantation inside the
central province of Zambezia turned into currently infected by bacteria, transmitted via a planthopper
computer virus (haplaxius crudus). The bacteria brought on the foliage of an infected palm tree to show yellow
after which brown, killing the tree within six months. The plantation in Zambezia became once the
international’s largest, however the ailment has killed over 7 million palm bushes, which may be used as
uncooked material for pellet manufacturing. All those sources of residuals and uncooked cloth have
capability to produce pellets economically, and potentially at aggressive levels to charcoal in
larger towns.
Pellet production in Mozambique is presently non-existent, despite the fact that neighbouring South
Africa has some pellet producers and Zambia has multiple start-up businesses. Pellets
can’t be burned in the currently identified stoves in Mozambique, because of the low
airflow they offer. Paul van der Sluis, foremost research scientist at Philips Research
Laboratories in the Netherlands, has designed a timber gasification range meant to burn
wooden, animal dung or other biomass each more effectively and cleanser than conventional stoves
(AfricanCleanEnergy, 2014). The generation of the stove can be as compared with a pellet
boiler; it’s miles best a simplified and smaller model. The range has therefore validated very capable of
burn timber pellets, as an example in a venture in Zambia (CradleToCradle, 2014).
Introducing advanced coo                          king stoves to the citizenry of sub-city Maputo may be visible as a
small push to achieve The United Nations Millennium Development Goal 7; Ensure
environmental sustainability (UN, 2013a). Not only are bushes stored from being cut down, however
also range users’ environmental consciousness will increase.
2. AIM
The goal of this study is to examine carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate be counted (PM)
emissions from three types of biofuels burned in a wooden gasification stoves (WGS): timber
pellets, torrefied bamboo pellets and birch firewood. By interviewing families and timber
industries, the feasibility of using wooden pellet as an alternative cooking gasoline in sub-city
families in Maputo, Mozambique will furthermore be assessed. The object is to minimise
the intake of the conventional cooking fuels, firewood and charcoal through introducing a extra
sustainable opportunity and also to extract different viable benefits from timber pellets.
The range is optimized for burning firewood, animal dung and different biomass. Since this examine
ambitions to view the capacity of using timber pellets as fuel, the stove will be adjusted for burning
timber pellets given particle and CO emissions.
3.1. Domestic electricity state of affairs in Mozambique
The quantity of the environmental and health problems connected to using charcoal and
different biofuels for cooking has best currently began to obtain the attention of researchers and
policymakers global (WHO, 2006). The Mozambican authorities approved in 2009 the
National Biofuel Policy and Strategy, an crucial instrument for the release of biofuel
activity inside the united states. The strategy is a regulatory framework for production of biofuels via
each private and public sectors, based on principles of transparency, electricity safety, and
social and environmental safety (Atanassov et al., 2012).
The “strength ladder” is made from numerous rungs, with conventional fuels together with firewood and
animal dung occupying the lowest rung. Charcoal, coal, kerosene, gas and strength, inside the
given order, represents the following steps of the ladder. As the profits in step with capita increases,
households transfer more efficient electricity systems for their family electricity needs, i.E. Flow
up the “energy ladder”. The earnings degrees at which human beings pass up the energy ladder has
fallen with technological development (Holdren P. And Smith R., 2000). New technology, such
because the WGS, help the fuels occupying the bottom rung to be used extra effic

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